Achondroplastic Stenosis – Escalation of vertebral clot or curbing of the pedicles.
Acute – Acute.
Adolescent Scoliosis – Lateral twisting of the spine which happens during adolescence.
Adult Scoliosis – Lateral scoliosis that develops after puberty.
Afferent Neuron – Impulse diffused to your central nervous system.
Allograft – Sterile bone graft used in spinal fusion and obtained from human sources or bone removed from one person and placed in another.
Analgesia – Loss of feeling pain.
Anaesthesia – Loss of consciousness because of anesthetic drugs or loss of feeling in the body.
Anaesthetist – Medical specialist in anesthetics and pain management.
Anisospondyly – Abnormally-shaped spinal bones.
Anterior – Front.
Anterior Approach –
Anterior Cervical Discectomy – Operation through the front of your neck to remove herniated disc.
Anterior Cervical Decompression Fusion – Operation in the upper spine to decompress nerve roots and join unbalanced vertebral segments.
Anterior Displacement – Forward movement of spine segment.
Anterior Lumbar Inter body Fusion (ALIF) – Lumbar spinal fusion approached from the front.
Anterior Lateral – From front to side.
Anterior Lateral Approach – Operative approach through rib resection of your body.
Anti-coagulant – Medicine that thins the blood to reduce danger of deep vein thrombosis.
Arachnoid – Middle layer cover for brain and spinal cord.
Arthralgia – Joint pain.
Arthritis – Joint inflammation of the joint with likely engorgement, pain and rigidity.
Arthrodesis – Fusion of bones across a joint space which happen unexpectedly or through surgical fusion.
Arthroplasty – Surgical remodeling of diseased joint.
Atlas – First cervical bone.
Atrophy – Waste away body tissue.
Autogenous Bone – Bone of individual.
Autologus – Bone graft from and for the same person.
Avascular – Absence of blood vessels within the structure.
Axis – Second cervical bone around which the first rotates enabling head movement.
Back Ache – Non-specific pain in the back’s lower part
Backbone – Spinal column or spine
Benign – Non- cancerous and does not spread to other body parts.
Bio Compatibility – Characteristic of some materials in which if implanted into a humanfails to generate considerable immune response
Biopsy – Small piece of tissue or bone taken for examination.
BMP – Bone protein
Bone – Hard calciferous material comprising the structural skeleton and provides a framework for muscles, ligament and tendons
Bone Derivative – Substance extracted from the bone.
Bone Graft Substitute – Material used instead of bone graft to enhance bone formation
Bone Graft – Bone taken from one area part and moved to another in the same individual
Bone Harvesting – Bone removed from one area the body and transferred to another
Bone Plate – Metal or titanium used in combination with bone screws to fix the bone
Bone Screws – Immobilization screws for bone or plate fixation
Bovine Bone Graft – Bone grafting in bovines or cows
Brace – Back support mechanism
Cancelous Bone – Honeycomb like structure in the middle area of long bones
Carotid Artery – Big vessel found on either side of the neck and branches into external and internal carotid arteries. The carotid supplies considerable amount of blood to the brain.
Cartilage – Thin layer of tissue that covers bone ends and encourages movement by decreasing friction in your joints
Cauda Equina – Bunch of nerve roots in the spinal cord which supplies lower limbs
Cauda Equina Syndrome – Multiple nerve root inflammation which causes loss of bladder and bowel functions.
Centrum – Body of the vertebrae
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) – Clear fluid that baths the brain and spinal cord acting as shock absorber
Cervical – Neck region
Cervical Collar – Support band worn round the neck after injury or surgery in the cervical region
Cervical Plexus – Nerves supplying neck muscles
Cervical Decompression – This is where cervical nerve roots are decompressed
Cervical Fusion – Number of cervical bones which are fixed with the use of bone plates, screws and cages
Coagulation – Blood clotting
Cobalt – Chrome – Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum or blend of metals for surgical implants
Coccyx – Fusion of the last four bones of the spinal column into one small bony structure
Collagen – Protein that contributes to the enhancement of living tissues like skin, tendons, cartilage and bones
Compensatory Curve – Curve above or beneath the main scoliosis curve which helps the body to become stable
Compression – Squeeze or make something smaller like nerve root compression which causes pain
Computer Tomography (CT) – Scan process producing tri-dimensional image of soft tissue or bone
Congenital Scoliosis – Scoliosis caused by hereditary disposition and bone alignment abnormality
Contrast Medium – Radio opaque fluid to define a structure during radiologic tests
Cortical Bone – Bone’s hard outer layer
Cytology – Study of cells
Decompression – Operation to alleviate pressure on nerve roots and spinal column
Degenerative Disc Disease – Gradual or rapid loss of structural and functional integrity leading to inter-vertebral disease
Degenerative Stenosis – Gradual hypertrophy of bone or cartilage producing narrowing of bone margins, facet joints or vertebral canal
De-mineralized Bone – Bone drained of minerals
Dermatome – Distribution of sensory nerves near the skin responsible for pain or numbness. Disc – Disk-shaped specialized tissue that separates bones in the spinal column.
Discitis – Non-bacterial inflammation of inter-vertebral disc
Discogram – Radiographic representation of the inter-vertebral disc by injecting dye into the nucleus pulposus
Distal – Located away from the vertical dividing line of the body
Dysesthesia – Disagreeable sensation caused by ordinary touch, temperature or motion
Dysplastic – Congenital defect
Edema – Collection of fluid
Electroencephalopgrahy (EEG) – Study of electric activity in the brain
Endogenous – Derived from the body
Epidural – Space outside the Dura mater
Esophasus – Long tube that conveys food from the mouth to the abdomen
Excision – Tissue removal
Exogenous – Originates outside the body
Extrusion – Displaced disc material herniated to the spinal canal but remains connected to the central disc
Facet – Superior and inferior facet for each vertebrae which are flat surfaces making up a joint
Facet Arthropathy – Deterioration of facet joints
Facectomy – Excision of articular facets
Fibrosis – Replacement of normal with hardened scar tissue
Flattening of the Normal Lumbar Curve – Normal lumbar curve becomes shallow
Flexion – Bend forward
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – U.S. agency that regulates management and distribution of drugs, medical devices and food
Foramen – Natural opening in the bone allowing spinal nerve roots to pass from the spinal cord between the vertebrae
Foraminotomy – Surgical opening or widening of foramen
Fracture – Disruption of bone’s normal continuity
Functional Scoliosis – Normal spine that appears to be a lateral curve
Fusion – Union or healing of bones
Graft – Unattached tissue or bone for transplant
Hemangioma – Benign tumor consisting of a mass of blood cells
Hematoma – Collection of blood that forms a clot
Hematomyelia – Effusion of blood into the spinal column
Hematorrhachis – Spinal apoplexy or hemorrhage of vertebral canal
Hemi – One-sided
Hemi Atrophy – Wasting of body organ
Hemi Laminectomy – Excision of one side of the lamina relative to the spinal process
Hemiplegia – Paralysis of one part of your body
Haemorrhage – Bleeding in the blood vessel
Hereditary – Passing of traits to the offspring through genetic information
Herniation Intervertebral Disc (HID) – Out-pouching of disc material in vertebral canal
Herniation of Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) – Extrusion of inner nucleus pulposus because of abnormality in the outer layer described as annulus fibrosis
Herniation – Protrusion or Outcropping
Heterotopic Bone Formation – Bone growth in uncharacteristic area
Hydroxyapatite (HA) – Web-like bone structure made up of calcium and phosphorous crystals used in bone graft substitute
Hyoid Bone – Small bone on the side of the trachea and the level of third cervical vertebrae
Hyper – Beyond what is normal
Hyperesthesia – Extreme sensitivity to touch or other stimulus
Hyperextension – Extension of limb or bending backwards
Hyperflexion – Flexion of limb or bending forward
Hyperthermia – Abnormal increase in body temperature
Hyperlordosis – Growth of normal anterior curve in cervical and lumbar spine
Hypothermia – Abnormal decrease in body temperature
Idiopathic – Of unknown origin
Idiopathic Scoliosis – Irregular lateral curve of nameless origin
Iliac Crest – Prominent part of pelvic bone from which bone is grafted
Immobilization of the Back – Limitation or fixation of the back usually to promote healing
Infantile Scoliosis – Unusual twisting of the side which starts at three years old
Instrumentation – Use of instruments like metal screws and rods during surgery
Inter-body – Between two adjacent vertebrae
Interspinous Ligament – Ligament in the spinous processes
Interspinous Pseudarthrosis – Formation of false joints in the spinous processes
Intervertebral Disc Narrowing – Tapering of space between two vertebral bodies
Invivo – Inside a living body
Inferior – Located below or directed downward
Informed Consent – Documentation saying patient obtained sufficient information to undergo surgery
Ischemia – Insufficient circulation of blood in the brain.
Isthmic – Lesion in the pars interarticularis
Joint – Connection of two or more bones allowing varying degrees of movement between the bones
Juvenile Rheumatiod Arthritis – Inflammatory joint disease in children
Juvenile Scoliosis – Abnormal lateral curve which starts between three and 10 years
Kinetic – Motion or movement
Kyphosis – Abnormal increase in normal kyphotic curvature of the thoracic spine
Lamina – Flat portion of vertebral arch covering spinal cord and nerves
Laminectomy – Excision of vertebrae plate
Lateral – Away from the midline
Ligament – Fibrous connective tissue connected to the end of a bone which provides stability and limits joint movement
Ligamentum Flavum – Band of yellow elastic tissue between plates of first cervical vertebrae to the sacrum giving stability to the vertebral column
Lipoma – Benign fatty tumor
Lordoscoliosis – Irregular lateral curvature associated with back spinal curve
Lordosis – Normal forward curve in the neck and lower back
Lumbago – Non-medical term for lower lumbar back pain
Lumbar – It can be found between the thoracic spine and sacrum
Lumbar Curve – Curve from first to fifth vertebrae
Lumbar Kyphosis – Reverse of the lower back’s normal curve
Luxation – Dislocation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Diagnostic test to define structures within the brain and the spine
Malignant – Cancerous and resistant to treatment
Marginal Osteophytes – Excess bone that forms at the margin of the vertebral body
Medial – Towards the middle of the body
Minimally Invasive Surgery – Surgery done through a small incision
Myelalgia – Pain in the spinal cord
Myelapoplexy – Loss of nerve strength due to spinal cord malady
Myelatelia – Imperfect growth of spinal cord
Mylogram – X-ray of spinal canal following an injection
Nerve – White cord-like structure made up of a single or more bundles of myelinated or non myelinated fibers
Nerve Root – Edge of nerve close to the spinal cord
Neural Arch – Bony arch around spinal cord
Neuralgia – Pain in one or more nerves
Neurectomy – Excision in one art of the nerve
Neuritis – Nerve inflammation
Neurolysis – Excision of scar tissue within nerve or nerve root
Neuroma – A tumor made up of nerve fibers
Neuromuscular Scoliosis – Scoliosis caused by muscle disorder
Neuropathic Pain – Burning feeling caused by damage to the nerve tissue
Neuropathy – Functional disturbance of peripheral nervous system
Neuro stimulation – Surgical insertion of wired device to block pain signals to the brain that results in a tingling sensation
Neuro Surgery – Surgery associated with treatment of brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve disorders.
Non Union – Failure of fracture to heal
Nucleus Pulposus – Gelatinous tissue in the middle of an inter-vertebral disc
Occiput – Base of the skull
Olisthy – Sliding of bone or bones from normal anatomical position.
Orthopedic – This involves the preservation and restoration of musculoskeletal system that includes treatment of spinal disorders and peripheral nerve injury
Osteoinductive – Material with capacity to induce bone growth
Ossification – Procedure of forming bone in the body
Osteomyelitis – Bone inflammation due to an infective methodology
Osteophyte – Bony overgrowth
Osteoporosis – Disorder where bone looses its density and becomes soft
Pain – Unpleasant sensation associated with actual or potential tissue damage
Paraplegia – Paralysis of lower extremities
Paravertebral Muscle Spasm – Spasm of the muscles that can cause intense pain
Pars Interarticulars – Superior and inferior facets joined to each other by the pars
Pathology – Study of diseases
Pedicle – Strongest part of neural arch that joins lamina to the vertebra
Physiotherapy – Exercising parts of the body to relearn movement, regain movement, or rehabilitate parts of the body
Piriformis Syndrome – Diagnosis based on pain in the buttocks leading down the back of the thigh
Platysma – Thin outermost muscle in the anterior neck
Plexus – Network of inter-joining nerves, blood vessels or lymphatic vessels
Posterior – Back of body structure
Posterior Fusion – Fusion in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions approached from the back
Prosthesis – Surgical implants used in the body
Proximal – Nearest the body’s midline
Pseudoarthrosis – Form of non-union where fusion has formed a false joint
Quadriplegia – Paralysis of all limbs
Rachialgia – Pain in the vertebrae
Rachicentisis – Lumbar puncture for spinal fluid exams
Rachiocampsis – Spine curvature
Rachiopathy – Spine disease
Rachioscoliosis – Spine lateral curvature
Radiculopathy – Nerve roots syndrome near the spinal cord coming from direct pressure or swelling of the nerve root due to spinal joint ailment
Radiologist – Doctor with special training in the interpretation of X-ray, MRI and CT scan
Recombinant Human Protein – Proteins developed by isolating human protein and using recombinant DNA technology
Referred Pain – Pain felt far from its origin
Reflex – Involuntary reaction to stimuli
Retrolisthesis – Posterior displacement of vertebrae
Rhizolysis – Freeing of the bone nerve root
Sacral – It is among the lowest fused vertebral segments of the spinal column
Sagittal – Longitudinal
Sciatica – Pain that travels from the buttock down to the posterior thigh
Scoliosis – Lateral twisting of the spine
Spinal Canal – Bony canal made up of neural arch that encases the spinal cord
Spinal Cord – Longitudinal cord of nerves
Spinal Fusion – Surgical method to strengthen the spinal column
Spinal Stenosis – Narrowing of spinal canal leading to nerve root compression
Spine – Flexible column of 33 bones
Spinous Process – Part of the neural arch that protrudes and felt under the skin
Spondylarthritis – Spine Arthritis
Spondylitis – Vertebrae inflammation
Spondylolisthesis – Varying degrees of posterior or inferior vertebral displacement due to deterioration, genetics or trauma
Spondylolysis – Defect in the neural arch between the superior and inferior facets
Spondylopathy – Disorder affecting the spinal column
Spondylosis – Replacement of ligament around the disc space
Stenosis – Reduction in the diameter of the spinal canal or lateral foramen
Tendon – Fibrous band of tissue made of collagen that connects muscle to bone
Tension – Stretching or pulling tight
Thoracic – Region of the spine at the chest level
Thrombus – Blood clot in the wall of an artery
Tissue – Collection of similar type of cells
Titanium – Metallic element used in surgical implants
Toxicology – Study of the toxic or harmful effects of substances on the body
Traction – Pulling force on a limb or spinal column in a distal direction
Transitional Vertebrae – Vertebra with two elements
Transverse – Crosswise
Transverse Process – Bony process extending from the mid portion of the neural arch
Ultra Sound – Use of high frequency sound waves to create visuals of internal body structures
Uncovertebral – Pertaining to the processes of the vertebrae
Uni – One side
Union – Fusion of tissues separated by injury or knitting together of bone in a fusion
Ureter – Tube measuring 16 to 18 inches that connects kidneys to the bladder
Vagus Nerve – Is the 10th cranial nerve responsible for both sensory and motor function. Situated in the neck alongside the carotid artery
Vascular – Related to or containing blood vessels
Vasoconstriction – Decrease in the distance of blood vessels
Vasodilatation – Increase in the measurement of blood vessels
Vasospasm – Spasm of the blood vessel causing vasoconstriction
Vertebra – One of 33 bones that make up the spinal column protecting the spinal cord and gives the body stability
Vertebral Body – Main rectangular portion of the vertebra
Whiplash – Common term in describing hyperextension and hyper flexion of the neck
Wire – Metal thread available in various diameters to aid in fixation of fractures and fusion surgery
Xenograft – Graft derived from one species for the use of another species
X-Ray – Ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted from a tube towards the target anode
Xylocaine – Local anesthetic
Z Plasty – Repair of skin defect using two triangular flaps